IVDU is the most frequent mode of HIV transmission globally

In Australia, Clean Needle Exchange Programs have reduced the risk

Comparison of IVDU V's no IVDU in the Australian Observational Database showed

IVDU  had 40 new diagnosis

IVDU with MSM had 56 new diagnosis

IVDU population had a higher risk of loss to follow up and mortality and viral suppression took longer than those whose risk was MSM only.

The IVDU with MSM group had the highest risk of virological failure and the highest risk of being lost to follow up